Fish farming

Published: 2021-06-18 10:45:05
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Category: Environmental studiess

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Fish farming is a form of aquaculture which involves raising or culturing fish usually for food in a given body of water such as a pond , lake or reservoir using scientific methods of feeding and breeding etc FISH FEED: • Fish nutrition is defined as the diet given to fishes or dietary requirements of fish. • In order to ensure maximum production, fish feed is usually formulated based on : 1)nutrition requirements of cultivated fishes . 2)physiology of digestion. 3)feeding habits of fish. Major fishes which are usually cultivated are:  Labeo rohita  Cirrhinus mrigala  Cyprinus carpio Silver carp  Catla catla (Indian carp)  Tilapia  Shrimps MAJOR TYPES OF FISH AQUACULTURE INTENSIVE CULTURE: • In this cash pond size is small , but the expected yield is high and proper utilization of nutrients is ensured to obtain max. production. • Artificial feed is given to fishes and production of natural is increased by providing fertilizers to the pond. • The artificial feed must contain high amount of nutrients required for growth and development of fishes. • Sufficient oxygen level is should be maintained i.e proper aeration (bubbling ) is provided . • To avoid the risk of infections by parasites , bacteria and protozoa recycling of water is done at regular basis. EXTENSIVE CULTURE: • This type of fish culture consists of large sized ponds . • Production generally depends on natural resources available in pond like zooplanktons and phytoplantons , algae, other micro organisms. • Artificial food or fertilizers are not generally used. • The production is usually less than intensive culture. FEED FORMULATION: NUTRITION AND GENERAL COMPOSITION OF FEED: • Nutrients required by fish are generally same as other organisms such as carbohydrates, lipids , proteins , vitamins and minerals. • In some cases pigments or carotenoids are added for enchacing their flesh and skin colouration e.g used in case of ornamental fishes. GENERAL REQUIRMENTS OF NUTRIENTS: Proteins ……………….32-45% Carbohydrates…………..10-30% Lipids…………………..4-28% Minerals………………1.0-2.5% Vitamins…………….1.0-2.5% In addition to these other other components which are added to feed generally are: Pigements or carotenoids used to enhace skin coloration . Binding agents in order to provide stability to pellets. Preservatives :such as anti-microbes and anti- oxidants are added to improve the life of fish feed and also reduce the rancidity . Attractants are added : such as chemoattrancts and flavoring agents enhance feed palatability and its intake. Other components : fiber and ash are generally used in fish feed FEED FORMULATION: In order to formulate cheap and nutritive feed for fishes all these ingredients A single type of food should not be given , instead two or more ingredients should be mixed which will supply all the essential nutrients . A diet may be provided as a supplement to natural food already present in pond A complete feed must be nutritionally balanced ,palatable, water stable and should have proper texture and size. Feeds formulated are generally of two types: A)dry feeds B)non-dry feeds DRY FEED: The moisture content is 7 to 13% ,easy to manfacture and store. NON-DRY FEED: These can be semi-moist feeds(15 to 25% moist) , moist feeds (26-45%) and wet feeds (46-70 %). More palatable because of soft consistency. Pellets given to fishes are usually broken into small pieces known as crumbles. Depending on feeding requirements of the fish pellets can be made floating or sinking. STORAGE CAUTIONS: When the formulated feeds are stored for longer periods under poor conditions various problems arises like : Losses occurring in feed stuffs are: A)weight loss B)quality loss c)health loss d)economic loss All these losses occur due to deterioration of feed during storage mainly due to; a)oxidative damage b)microbial damage c)insect damage d)other chemical changes To avoid these damages various storages procedures are available like a)insulation b)ventilation c)storage hoppers and silos Besides this various cautions should be taken while storing feed stuffs a)avoid frequent interfence into the storage site b)provide proper ventilation c)Don’t mix different feeds together d)Always keep the store clean

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