Power Quality Improvement By Multi-Pulse AC-DC Converters

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Abstract Now a days ,the issue of power quality is a major concerned area of research in the power sector. With the advancement in technology, now it is possible to keep power sector free from pollution. In the past few years, a lot of work have been done for the reduction of the total harmonic distortion using different concepts and applications. As a fundamental three-phase controllable ac-dc converter, the six-pulse SCR rectifie is widely used in industry. However, it generates high Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the line current. One of the solutions is to use multi-pulse rectifiers. Multi-pulse rectifiers could be classified into the 12-, 18- and 24-pulse configurations. Application examples include high voltage direct current transmission systems, high power battery chargers and load commutated current source inverter powered motor drives. Harmonics treatment can be performed by two methods: filtering and cancellation. In filtering, the filters have their own harmonic so harmonic doesn’t reduce much 3-phase Thyristor rectifiers have been used in industries for obtaining a variable DC voltage, but they have a problem of including large lower order harmonics in the input current. Various literatures have given idea that power quality can be improved with multi pulse converter i.e. 12, 18 , 24 , 30 , 36 , 48 pulse converter. It consists of identical six pulse converter units and may involve phase shifting transformers. By increasing number of pulse we can reduce more harmonics. Key words: Multi-pulse SCR rectifier, harmonic elimination, line current THD. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 4 List of Figures: Figure No Figure Description Page No 3.2.1 Six Pulse Rectifier 16 3.2.2 Waveform of the idealized six pulse SCR rectifier 18 Operating at alpha=0 3.3.1 Twelve Pulse Rectifier Circuit 19 3.3.2 Block diagram of Twelve Pulse Rectifier 19 3.3.3 Current waveform of the 12-pulse SCR rectifier 21 3.4.1 Current waveforms in the 12-pulse series-type rectifier 24 3.4.2 Harmonic spectrum of the rectifier currents 25 3.5 Typical current waveforms and harmonics contents of the 26 12- pulse SCR rectifier 3.6 Primary line current THD and input PF of the 27 12-pulse SCR rectifier. 4.1 Six Pulse Rectifier Simulation 28 4.1.1 Waveform of Six pulse Rectifier 29 4.2 Twelve Pulse Rectifier Simulation 30 4.2.1 Waveform of Twelve pulse Rectifier for alpha=0 31 4.2.2 Waveform of Twelve pulse Rectifier for alpha=30 32 4.2.3 Waveform of Twelve pulse Rectifier for alpha=60 33 4.2.4 Waveform of Twelve pulse Rectifier for alpha=90 34 4.3 Harmonic spectrum of current 35 4.4 MATLAB : Harmonic spectrum 36 5.1 TYN 612 38 5.2.1 TCA 785 39 5.2.2 Pin diagram of TCA 785 40 5.3.1 Hardware of six – pulse converter 41 5.3.2 Power circuit of six – pulse converter 42 5.3.3 Control circuit of six-pulse converter 43 5.4.1 Output voltage waveform for alpha = 0 degree 44 5.4.2 Output voltage waveform for alpha = 60 degree 44 Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 5 5.4.3 Output voltage waveform for alpha = 130 degree 45 5.4.4 Output voltage waveform for alpha = 170 degree 45 5.4.5 Saw tooth waveform(Control part) 46 Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 6 Table of Contents Acknowledgement 3 Abstract 4 List of figures 5 Literature survey 9 CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION 10 1.1 Problem statement 10 1.2 Introduction to Power Quality Improvement 10 1.3 methods of eliminating harmonic current 12 1.4 Major Factors Contributing to Power Quality Issues 12 CHAPTER-2: POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTER 14 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Types of Converters and Description 14 CHAPTER-3: MULTI-PULSE CONVERTER 15 3.1 Introduction 15 3.2 Six Pulse Converter 16 3.3 Twelve Pulse Converter 19 3.4 Input current waveform and Harmonic spectrum 23 3.5 Effect of Line and Leakage Inductance 26 3.6 THD and PF 27 CHAPTER-4: MATLAB SIMULATION 28 4.1 Six Pulse Converter 28 4.2 Twelve Pulse Converter 30 4.2.1 Waveform for alpha=0 degree 31 4.2.2 Waveform for alpha=30 degree 32 4.2.3 Waveform for alpha=60 degree 33 Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 7 4.2.4 Waveform for alpha=90 degree 34 4.3 Current Waveform 35 4.4 THD 36 CHAPTER-5: HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION 38 5.1 TYN 612 Thyristor 38 5.2 TCA 785 IC 39 5.3 Implementation of six-pulse converter 41 5.4 Output voltage waveforms for different firing angle 44 APPLICATION 47 RESULT ANALYSIS 48 REFERENCES 49 PPRs 50 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS 52 BMC REPORT 53 Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 8 LITERATURE SURVEY  Power electronic converter harmonics : Multi-pulse methods foe clean power by DEREK A. PAICE  Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland and William P. Robbins,” Power Electronics: Converter, Applications, and Design” Wiley, 3 edition (October 12,2002).  P.S Bimbhra ,”Power Electronics”, Khana Publishers,New Delhi, 3rd Edition 2006.  Power electronics: IEEE papers. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 9 CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem statement: To improve system power quality by reducing harmonics using multi-pulse converter. 1.2 Introduction to Power Quality Improvement The IEEE defines POWER QUALITY as the ability of a system or an equipment to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic interferences to anything in that environment. Power quality plays an important role in supplying electricity effectively to the consumers. The perfect power supply will be one which is like (1)Any time available (2)Good voltage and frequency within tolerances (3)Has noise free sinusoidal wave shape. As power becomes more essential and treasures resource for the entire world, it is important to maintain its quality at all levels of usage for reliable working of apparatus. IEEE standard defines electrical power quality as “the concept of powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipment in a manner suitable for the equipment with precise wiring system and other connected equipment”. It is deviation of voltage and currents from the ideal or actual waveforms. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 10 Quality of the power is decided by the end users. If the power apparatus works satisfactorily for given supply then power is at good quality. If it doesn’t roles well or fails to work, then power quality is poor. Reasons for poor power quality or power quality issues are: 1. Harmonics 2. Transients 3. Voltage Fluctuations such as Voltage Sags & Swells 4. Interruptions e.g. Outages & Blinks Power quality difficulties can produce significant problems in situations that include: •important business applications (banking, inventory control, process control) •critical industrial processes (programmable process controls, safety systems, monitoring devices) •essential public services (paramedics, hospitals, police, air traffic control) Harmonic Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are integer multiples of the frequency at which the sup-ply system is designed to operate (termed the fundamental frequency; usually 50 or 60 Hz). Harmonic distortion levels are described by the complete harmonic spectrum with magnitudes and phase angles of each individual harmonic component. It is also common to use a single quantity, the total harmonic distortion (THD), as a measure of the effective value of harmonic distortion. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 11 1.3 Methods to eliminate Harmonic Current: To meet the restriction of IEEE Standard 519-1992, many methods could be applied to eliminate or reduce harmonic currents generated by rectifiers. For example, 1) Using passive filters. Line reactors (inductors) are often used in conjunction with capacitors in a rectifier to filter specific harmonic currents. However, the connection of capacitors could cause resonance conditions that can magnify harmonic current at certain frequency to a harmful level. 2) Using certain switching techniques. Switching techniques, for instance the pulse width modulation technique, could be used to eliminate harmonic currents. In high power applications, the premise for using these techniques is that the switching devices must be the gate-turn-off type, such as GTOs or IGBTs . 3) Using multi-pulse rectifiers. Multi-pulse rectifiers are designed based on phaseshifting transformers, which enable certain harmonics to be cancelled from the rectifiers’ line currents. This method is especially practical for harmonic elimination in high power applications. 1.4 Major Factors Contributing to Power Quality Issues:- The three major factors contributing to the problems associated with power quality are: (1) Use of Sensitive Electronic Loads The electric utility system is designed to provide reliable, efficient, bulk power that is suitable for the very large majority of electrical equipment. However, devices like computers and digital controllers have been widely adopted by electrical end-users. Some of these devices can be susceptible to power line disturbances or interactions with other nearby equipment Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 12 (2) The Proximity of Disturbance-Producing Equipment Higher power loads that produce disturbances – equipment using solid state switching semiconductors, arc furnaces, welders and electric variable speed drives – may cause local power quality problems for sensitive loads. (3) Source of Supply Increasing energy costs, price volatility and electricity related reliability issues are expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Businesses, institutions and consumers are becoming more demanding and expect a more reliable and robust electrical supply, particularly with the installation of diverse electrical devices. Compatibility issues may become more complex as new energy sources and programs, which may be sources of power quality problems, become part of the supply solution. These include distributed generation, renewable energy solutions, and demand response programs Utilities are regulated and responsible for the delivery of energy to the service entrance, i.e., the utility meter. The supply must be within published and approved tolerances as approved by the regulator. Power quality issues on the “customer side of the meter” are the responsibility of the customer. It is important therefore, to understand the source of power quality problems, and then address viable solutions. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 13 CHAPTER-2: POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTER 2.1 Introduction: The term “Converters” is used to refer a system which transforms one form of electrical energy into another form of electrical energy. The Power electronics converters uses a matrix of power semiconductor switches to convert electrical power at high efficiency. The converter system consists of (1)Switches (include two terminal devices such as diodes and three terminal devices such as Thyristors). (2) Reactive components L, C (3) Transformer These converters (also known as controllers) are generally classified into the following four broad categories: 1) Rectifiers: Conversion: From Fixed AC to Variable DC 2) Choppers: Conversion: From Fixed DC to Variable DC 4) Inverters : Conversion: From Fixed DC to AC of variable frequency and of Fixed or variable magnitude 5) AC to AC converters : AC Regulators: Conversion: From Fixed AC to variable AC at same frequency 17)- Cyclo converters : Conversion: From AC at one frequency to AC at another frequency through one stage conversion. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 14 Chapter-3: Multi-pulse rectifiers 3.1 INTRODUCTION: Three phase 12 pulse controlled rectifiers are extensively used for converting AC to DC. Higher pulse number means fewer input harmonics (better power factor), and smoother output (smaller smoothing components).In phase controlled rectifiers though the output voltage can be varied continuously the load harmonic voltage increases considerably as the average value goes down. The magnitude of harmonic voltage is lower in 3-phase converter compared to the 1-phase circuit. Since the frequency of the harmonic voltage is higher than smaller load inductance leads to continuous conduction. Input current wave shape become rectangular and contains higher order odd harmonics. The displacement angle of the input current increases with firing angle. The frequency of the harmonic voltage and current can be increased by increasing the pulse number of the converter which can be achieved by series and parallel connection of basic 6pulse converters. The rectifiers can be configured as 12-, 18- and 24-pulse rectifiers, powered by a phase shifting transformer with a number of secondary windings. Each secondary winding feeds a six-pulse diode rectifier. The main feature of the multi pulse rectifier lies in its ability to reduce the line current harmonic distortion. This is achieved by the phase shifting transformer, through which some of the low-order harmonic currents generated by the sixpulse rectifiers are canceled. In general, the higher the number of rectifier pulses, the lower the line current distortion is. The rectifiers with more than 30 pulses are seldom used in practice mainly due to increased transformer costs and limited performance improvements. The multi pulse rectifier has a number of other features. It normally does not require any LC filters or power factor compensators, which leads to the elimination of possible LC resonances. The use of the phase-shifting transformer provides an effective means to block common-mode voltages generated by the rectifier and inverter in medium voltage drives, Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 15 which would otherwise appear on motor terminals, leading to a premature failure of winding insulation. 3.2 Six Pulse Rectifier: Fig (3.2.1): Simplified circuit diagram of a six-pulse SCR rectifier Figure (3.2.1) shows a simplified circuit diagram for the six-pulse SCR rectifier, where RC snubber circuits for the SCR devices are nomitted. The line inductance Ls represents the total inductance between the utility supply and the rectifier, including the equivalent inductance of the supply, the total leakage inductance of isolation transformer if any, and the inductance of a three-phase line reactor that is often added to the system for the reduction of line current THD. On the dc side of the rectifier, a dc choke Ld is used to smooth the dc current. The choke is normally constructed with a single magnetic core and two coils, one coil in the Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 16 positive dc bus and the other in the negative bus. Such an arrangement is preferable in medium-voltage drives since it helps to reduce the common-mode voltage imposed on the motor without increasing the manufacturing cost of the choke. To simplify the analysis, it is assumed that the inductance of the dc choke Ld is sufficiently high such that the dc current Id is ripple-free. Idealized Six-Pulse Rectifier: Let’s consider an idealized six-pulse SCR rectifier, where the line inductance Ls in Fig. (3.2.1) is assumed to be zero. Fig. (3.2.2) shows typical waveforms of the rectifier, where va, vb, and vc are the phase voltages of the utility supply, ig1 to ig6 are the gate signals for SCR switches S1 to S6, and α is the firing angle of the SCRs, respectively. During interval I (π/6 + α < ωt < π/2 + α) va is higher than the other two phase voltages (vb and vc), making S1 forward-biased. When S1 is fired at ωt = π/6 +α by its gate signal ig1, it is turned on. The positive dc bus voltage vP with respect to ground G is equal to va. Assuming that S6 was conducting prior to the turn-on of S1, it continues to conduct until the end of interval I, during which the negative bus voltage vN is equal to vb. The dc output voltage can be found from vd = vP – vN = vab. The dc current Id flows from va to vb through S1, the load, and S6. The three-phase line currents are ia = Id, ib = –Id, and ic = 0 as shown in Fig. (3.2.2) Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 17 Fig (3.2.2): Waveforms of the idealized six-pulse SCR rectifier operating at α = 30° Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 18 3.3: 12- PULSE RECTIFIER Fig (3.3.1) Circuit diagram of 12-pulse SCR rectifier: Fig (3.3.2) Block diagram of a 12-pulse SCR rectifier: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 19 The block diagram of a 12-pulse SCR rectifier is shown in Fig. 3.3.2 It is composed of a phaseshifting transformer and two identical six-pulse SCR rectifiers. The transformer has two secondary windings, one connected in star and the other in delta. The line-to-line voltage of the secondary windings is normally half of its primary-currents, I’a and I’ã are the primary currents referred from the secondary side, and iA is the primary line current given by iA = I’a + I’ã, respectively. The secondary line current ia can be expressed as Where ω= 2πf1 is the angular frequency of the supply voltage. Since the waveform of ia is of halfwave symmetry, it does not contain any even-order harmonics. In addition ia does not contain any ripple harmonics either due to the balanced three phase system. The other secondary current iã leads ia by 30°, and its Fourier expression is The waveform for the referred current I’a in Fig. 3.3.3is identical to ia except that its magnitude is halved due to the turns ratio of the Y/Y-connected windings. The current I’a can be expressed in Fourier series as Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 20 Fig (3.3.3) Current waveforms of the 12-pulse SCR rectifier (Ls = Llk = 0) : When the current iã is referred to the primary side, the phase angles of some harmonic currents are altered due to the Y/Δ connected windings. As a result, the referred current I’ã does not keep the same wave shape as iã. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 21 The line current iA can be found from, where the two dominant current harmonics, the 5th and 7th , are canceled in addition to the 17th and 19th. The THD of the secondary and primary line currents ia and iA can be determined by The THD of the primary line current iA in the idealized 12-pulse rectifier is reduced approximately by 50% compared with that of the secondary line current ia. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 22 3.4 Input current waveform and Harmonic spectrum: Harmonic distortion:  Description: Voltage or current waveforms assume non-sinusoidal shape. The waveform corresponds to the sum of different sine-waves with different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are multiples of power-system frequency.  Causes: Classic sources: electric machines working above the knee of the magnetization curve (magnetic saturation), arc furnaces, welding machines, rectifiers, and DC brush motors. Modern sources: all non-linear loads, such as power electronics equipment including ASDs, switched mode power supplies, data processing equipment, high efficiency lighting.  Consequences: Increased probability in occurrence of resonance, neutral overload in 3-phase systems, overheating of all cables and equipment, loss of efficiency in electric machines, electromagnetic interference with communication systems, errors in measures when using average reading meters, nuisance tripping of thermal protections. Figure 3.4.1 shows a set of simulated current waveforms of the rectifier operating under the rated conditions. The line inductance Ls is assumed to be zero, and the total leakage inductance Llk is 0.05 pu, which is a typical value for a phase-shifting transformer. The dc current id is continuous, containing 12 pulses per cycle of the supply frequency. At any time instant (excluding commutation intervals), the dc current id flows through four diodes simultaneously, two in the top six-pulse rectifier and two in the bottom rectifier. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 23 Fig. 3.4.1 Current waveforms in the 12-pulse series-type rectifier (Ls = 0, Llk = 0.05 pu, and IA1 = 1.0 pu). The dc current ripple is relatively low due to the series connection of the two six-pulse rectifiers, where the leakage inductances of the secondary windings can be considered in series. The waveform of the line current ia in the star connected secondary winding looks like a trapezoidal wave with four humps on the top. The waveform of iã in the delta-connected winding is identical to ia except for a 30° phase displacement and is therefore not shown in the fig. The currents and iã in Figure. 3.4 is the secondary line currents ia and iã referred to the primary side. Since both primary and top secondary windings are connected in star, the waveform of the referred current is identical to that of ia except that its magnitude is halved due to the turns ratio of the two windings. When iã is referred to the primary side, the referred current does not keep the same waveform as iã. The changes in waveform are caused by the phase displacement of the harmonic currents when they are referred from the delta-connected secondary winding to the star-connected primary winding. It is the phase displacement that makes certain harmonics, such as the 5th and 7th, in out of phase with those in .As a result, these harmonic currents are canceled in the transformer primary winding and do not appear in the primary line current, given by Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 24 Fig. (3.4.2) shows the harmonic spectrum of the rectifier currents Figure. (3.4.2), where, I’ãn, and IAn are the nth order harmonic currents (rms) in I’a, Iãn, and iA, respectively. The harmonic content of the referred currents I’a and I’ã is identical, although their waveforms are quite different. This is understandable since the harmonic content should not alter when a secondary current is referred to the primary side. The magnitude of the 5th and 7th harmonics is 18.6% and 12.4%, respectively, which are much higher than other harmonics. The THD of the primary line current iA is only 8.38% in comparison to 24.1% of the secondary line current ia. The substantial reduction in THD is owing to the elimination of dominant harmonics by the phase-shifting transformer. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 25 3.5: Effect of Line and Leakage Inductances : Figure 3.5 shows typical current waveforms for the 12-pulse rectifier taking into account the transformer leakage inductance Llk. The rectifier operates under the condition of α= 0°, IA1 = 1 pu, Ls = 0 and Llk = 0.05 pu. The waveform for the secondary line current ia is close to a trapezoid and contains the 5th and 7th harmonics with a magnitude of 18.8% and 12.7%, respectively. However, these two harmonics are canceled by the phase-shifting transformer, and thus they do not appear in the primary line current iA. Due to the effect of the leakage inductance, the THD of iA is reduced from 15.3% in the idealized rectifier to 8.61 %. Fig 3.5 shows Typical current waveforms and harmonic contents of the 12-pulse SCR rectifier with Ls = 0 and Llk = 0.05 p Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 26 3.6: THD and PF : The THD of the primary line current iA as a function of IA1 and Ls is illustrated in Fig 3.6. Compared with the six-pulse SCR rectifier, the 12-pulse rectifier has a much better THD profile. The input power factor of the rectifier varies greatly with the firing angle as shown in , Fig 3.6 Primary line current THD and input PF of the 12-pulse SCR rectifier. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 27 Chapter-4: Matlab simulation 4.1 : Six – Pulse simulation : Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 28 Result: 4.1.1: Voltage waveform of the six pulse controlled rectifier Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 29 4.2: twelve- Pulse simulation: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 30 Output Voltage waveform: 4.2.1 Waveform for alpha=0 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 31 4.2.2 Waveform for alpha =30 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 32 4.2.3 Waveform for alpha=60 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 33 4.2.4 Waveform for alpha=90 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 34 4.3 Harmonic spectrum of the rectifier currents : Figure where, I’ãn and I an are the nth order harmonic currents (rms) in I’a, Iãn, and iA, respectively. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 35 4.4: MATLAB simulation of harmonics: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 36 4.5 Solution of power quality problems: The mitigation of PQ problems may take place at different levels: transmission, distribution and the endues equipment. As seen in Fig. 4.5 several measures can be taken at these levels. Fig.4.5 solution of power quality problems Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 37 Chapter-5: Hardware Implementation 5.1: TYN612 SCRs: Description: Glass passivated ,sensitive gate thyristor in plastic envelope,intended for use in general purpose switching and phase control applications. These devices are intended to be interfaced directly to microcontrollers,logic intergrated circuits and other low power gate trigger circuits. Fig 5.1: TYN612 K: cathode , A:anode , G:gate Application of tyn612:  Motor control  Industrial and domestic lighting  Heating  Static switching Features:  Blocking voltage to 600 V  On –state RMS current to 12 A  Ultra low gate trigger current Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 38 5.2: TCA 785 (Phase Control IC) Fig 5.2.1: TCA 785 Description: This phase control IC is intended to control thyristors,triacs and transistors. The trigger pulse can be shifted within a phase angle between 0 degree and 180 degree. Application:  Ac phase control  Three phase current controllers Features:  Reliable recognition of zero passage  Large application scope  May be used as zero point switch  LSL compatible  Three phase operation possible (3 ICs)  Output current 250 mA  Large ramp current range  Wide temperature range Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 39 Fig 5.2.2: Pin-Diagram of TCA 785: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 40 5.3: Hardware Implementation of 6 pulse converter: Fig 5.3.1: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 41 Fig 5.3.2: Power Circuit(6-Pulse Converter) Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 42 Fig 5.3.3: Control circuit for 6 pulse converter: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 43 5.4: Output Voltage Waveforms for different firing angle: Fig 5.4.1: alpha=0 degree Fig 5.42: alpha = 60 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 44 Fig 5.4.3: alpha = 130 degree Fig 5.4.4: alpha=170 degree Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 45 Fig 5.4.5: Saw tooth waveform (control part): Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 46 APPLICATION: ➢ Three-phase controlled rectifier have a wide range of applications, from small rectifiers to large High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems. ➢ They are used for electro-chemical process, many kinds of motor drives, traction equipment, controlled power supplies and many other applications ➢ In modern power electronics converters, a three-phase controlled converter is commonly used especially as a rectifier in interfacing adjustable speed drives and renewable energy in electric utilities. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 47 RESULT ANALYSIS: From the results obtained through the simulations of 6-pulse controlled converter and 12-pulse controlled converter using MATLAB simulink software. We study the various effects of Load variation on system performance and Power supply system like Factor, Harmonics etc. By simulating various conditions we observe the adverse effects and how to overcome them for optimal system operation. And we also study the relative advantages of multi pulse converter. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 48 REFERENCES:  Power electronic converter harmonics : Multi-pulse methods foe clean power by DEREK A. PAICE  Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland and William P. Robbins,” Power Electronics: Converter, Applications, and Design” Wiley, 3 edition (October 12,2002).  P.S Bimbhra ,”Power Electronics”, Khana Publishers,New Delhi, 3rd Edition 2006.  M.H Rashid,” Power Electronics: Circuit, Devices and Applications’, Prentice hall.3rd edition ,2003.  Power electronics: IEEE papers.  TYN612:data sheet Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 49 PPRS: Periodic Progess Report : First PPR Project: Power Quality Improvement By Multi-Pulse AC-DC Converters: Simulation ,Design & Implementation Status: Reviewed (Freeze) 1. What Progress you have made in the Project? Ans :we have made 3 phase transformer and working on the control part. 2. What challenge you have faced? Ans: we have faced problem in firing of SCR (control circuit) 3. What support you need? Ans: we need support to understand the working of IC which we are using in project. 4. Which literature you have referred? Ans: Power electronic converter harmonics : Multi-pulse methods foe clean power by DEREK A. PAICE Periodic Progess Report : Second PPR Project:Power Quality Improvement By Multi-Pulse AC-DC Converters: Simulation,Design & Implementation Status : Reviewed (Freeze) 1. What Progress you have made in the Project ? we are working on control circuit. 2. What challenge you have faced ? we have faced problem to compare the two waveform to get the gate pulse. 3. What support you need ? we need support in control circuit. 4. Which literature you have referred ? Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland and William P. Robbins,” Power Electronics: Converter, Applications, and Design” Wiley, 3 edition (October 12,2002). Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 50 Periodic Progess Report : Third PPR Project:Power Quality Improvement By Multi-Pulse AC-DC Converters: Simulation,Design & Implementation Status : Reviewed (Freeze) 1. What Progress you have made in the Project ? we are making power circuit . 2. What challenge you have faced ? we have faced challenge in firing of SCRs. 3. What support you need ? we need support to get clear idea about the TYN612 and its data sheet. 4. Which literature you have referred ? Power electronics: IEEE papers. Periodic Progess Report : Forth PPR Project: Power Quality Improvement By Multi-Pulse AC-DC Converters: Simulation,Design & Implementation Status: Reviewed (Freeze) 1. What Progress you have made in the Project? Ans: we have made the 3 phase transformer and working on power circuit. 2. What challenge you have faced? Ans: we have faced problem in power circuit. 3. What support you need? Ans: we need support to understand about the characteristics of tyn612. 4. Which literature you have referred? Ans: Power electronics: IEEE papers. Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 51 The Business model canvas: Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 52 BMC REPORT: The Business Model Canvas is a strategic management and lean start-up template for developing new or documenting existing business models. It is a visual chart with elements describing a product’s value, infrastructure, customers, and finances. It assists firms in aligning their activities by illustrating potential trade-offs. Formal descriptions of the business become the building blocks for its activities. Many different business conceptualizations exist but the following model proposes a single reference model based on the similarities of a wide range of business model conceptualizations. With this business model design template, an enterprise can easily describe their business model. The Canvas has nine elements which are as follows: (1) Value Propositions: It includes problems and needs of the persons that we are going to solve and satisfy through our product and various reasons for which they would like to choose our product over the rest. The various value proposition of our product are as follows: • Performance. • Effective cost. • Power factor improvement • Smooth dc output voltage (2) Customer Segments: To build an effective business model, a company must identify which customers it tries to serve. Various sets of customers can be segmented based on the different needs and attributes to ensure appropriate implementation of corporate strategy meets the characteristics of selected group of clients. This section mainly focuses on three things: Segment Dimensions, Segment composition and Problems, Needs, Habits & Current Alternatives. The following are our customer segments: • SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY • LARGE SCALE INDUSTRY (3) Channels: A company can deliver its value proposition to its targeted customers through different channels. Effective channels will distribute a company’s value proposition in ways that are fast, efficient and cost effective. An organization can reach its clients either through its own channels, partner channels or a combination of both. The channels which we may use are:  ONLINE SELLING  WORD OF MOUTH  TRADE FAIR Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 53 (4) Customer Relationship: To ensure the survival and success of any businesses, companies must identify the type of relationship they want to create with their customer segments. When it comes in increasing profits, it\’s tempting to concentrate on making new sales or pursuing bigger accounts. But attention to your existing customers, no matter how small they are, is essential to keeping your business thriving. The following will be our initiatives to build strong Customer Relationship: • AFTER SALES SUPPORT • SERVICE ON SITE (5) Key Activities: These are the crucial things the business needs to do to deliver on its propositions and make the rest of the business work. For a product-driven business, this includes ongoing learning about users and new techniques to build better product. If you’re focused on doing a bunch of things for a particular set of customers, it includes maintaining superior expertise on the segment(s) and creating or acquiring products and services that are a good fit, whatever that entails. Similarly for an infrastructure business, it includes keeping the infrastructure working reliably and making it more efficient. The key activities of our business model are as follows: • SELECTION OF RATING OF TRANSFORMER AND SCR • ASSEMBLY • TESTING (6) Key Resources: These are the resources that are necessary to create value for the customer. They are considered an asset to a company, which are needed in order to sustain and support the business. These resources could be human, financial, physical and intellectual. Key resources are the strategic assets you need in place, and you need in place to a greater or more targeted degree than your competitors. The following are our key resources: • MATERIAL • MACHINING FACILITY • LABOUR (7) Key Partners: In order to optimize operations and reduce risks of a business model, organization usually cultivate buyer-supplier relationships so they can focus on their core activity. Complementary business alliances also can be considered through joint ventures, strategic alliances between competitors or non-competitors. Hence identifying Key Partners is important for any Business Model. The following constitute as our key partners: • MATERIAL SUPPLIER • MACHINE SHOP • TOOL SUPPLIER Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 54 (8) Revenue Streams: A revenue stream is a form of revenue. It is considered one of the building blocks of a business model canvas that reveals the earning a business makes from all the methods by which money comes in. Revenue streams may be characterized. For example, a revenue stream has volatility, predictability, risk, and return. Thus, a revenue stream is a way of categorizing the earnings a company makes. Our revenue stream can be divided into following parts: • SELLING OF PRODUCT • PAID SERVICE • COMPONENT REPLACEMENT • INHOUSE WORK (9) Cost structure: This phase describes the most important monetary consequences while operating under different business models. There are 2 types of Business Structures – Cost- Driven & Value-Driven, and the cost structure differs accordingly. It includes the various types of costs (Fixed & Variable) and different activities that contribute to Total cost are to be included. Our cost structure segmentation is as follows: • RAW MATERIAL • MARKETING • INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITY This Business Model Canvas Report takes into account almost every element of the Business Model Canvas prepared by our team in line with our Business Model Proposal. This Report may serve as a primary document which may describe our Business Concept Model Sarvajanik college of engineering and technology, Surat 55

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