Relationship between humans and the environment

Published: 2021-07-09 16:55:05
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Argument PaperIncreasing evidences showing that the environmental relationship between human and the environment is becoming closer and more complicated. The design of the environment and space affects people’s daily life and experience. The author Amos Rapoport, a famous designer, said that “The man-environment interaction is thus crucially linked by perception and cognition and this, in turn, is affected by culture” (Rapoprt, 1970). Undefining the title before perception and cognition are essential for interior design. In this argument paper, the main discussion shall contend on the impact of environmental and spatial conditions on the user of the design, and the importance of human experience within both place and space. As a member of ethnic, social or cultural society, who is immersed within space and environment (Rapoprt, 1970). In a perceptual environment, space is not just a relatively simple physical space in the traditional sense. The concept of space should be fundamental of the definition of the environment, or more precisely, the type of space that is related to people. Based on this basis, people or designers can design better according to the current situation of the space to better meet customer needs. It should be noted that all the spaces discussed here are human spaces which can think of design as a process of spatial organization. Through the process of design and perception, the designer realistically expresses the ideal space, thus realizing the visualization of the design space. At the same time, space can also be symbolic. Designers select the appropriate system symbols to display behavioral spaces based on the characteristics of the space, such as cultural differences and behavioral standards. For example, when the first group of immigrants came to the north America, the design style of Protestantism’s church was simple and clever combined by Goth and Roma style due to lack of local resources and diversity of faith. It is essential to environmental factors for interior design. In the article, prospect-refuge, the author explains that people prefer environments where they can easily survey their surroundings and quickly hide or retreat to safety if necessary. Environments with both prospect and refuge elements are perceived as safe places to explore and dwell and consequently are considered more aesthetic than environments without these elements (W., K., & J.,2010). This article also mentions that the principles, do perception and cognition, are based on the evolutionary history of human beings and that the environment with sufficient prospects and evasiveness increases the probability of survival of humans and early humans (W., K., & J.,2010). These principles show that people prefer the edge rather than the middle space; there is space for the ceiling or the roof; providing unobstructed space; these types of spaces are spaces that provide a sense of security and are concealed. So, people prefer this type of space. For example, in the 20th century, various spa places for women, considering the privacy and security of customers, in order to attract more customers and improve the consumer experience. About the impact of perception and cognition on environmental design, the article design as narrative: a theory of inhabiting interior space proposes a new theoretical framework derived from the narrative structure. It establishes specific design criteria suitable for understanding the human experience of indoor spaces (Ganoe,1999). Use predictive methods to explain the possible human response to interior design. This approach is like the personal narrative. By combining the complex diversity of humans and society, it can help designers make informed decisions and better judge the design direction and theory of complex and abstract phenomena. “Design narrative theory provides a practical and dynamic system for acknowledging the importance of human meaning in interior space (Ganoe,1999).” This article mentions the discuss accessing of human meaning “alter the consciousness of the designer’s concept means “challenges the imagination and offers emotional rewards regardless of its pragmatic duty (Ganoe,1999).” In this way, reference can be made to reflect a designer’s design process, as well as the individual’s unique understanding of the world and the psychological relationship with the world. Human beings reflect on their own life experiences and understand this experience in a language-supported way so that people can work better and cooperate with others. The author says, “Use of a narrative framework made specific to interior design can assist the designer in making wise concrete decisions about complex and abstract phenomena” (Ganoe,1999). The new standard provides a deeper understanding of the customer’s preference for the design style so that it can better design a place space for the user. For example, the color design of kindergartens, designers have used children’s understanding and perception of color to achieve children’s judgment and understanding of things, to achieve the goal of education, to promote the individualized development of children, to grow in the subtle. Lastly, for architectural design, designers can creatively apply architectural science and technology to maximize environmental synergies. An effective program means that some design ideas are reducing this consumption and emissions in this way. The author mentioned that human ecological design proactively interfaces people with environments by constructing a built environment. By implementing, the human experience is within the space and place. The details that obtain meaning from the whole, human ecological design establishes new spaces, their sense of place and their environmental interfaces. According to the theory of Human Ecological Design, the design and construction of the buildings we live, work and rebuild, profoundly affect human experience, health, well-being and the environment steady (Caplan, 2016). By considering human needs and sustainable design concepts, this approach can better play the role and purpose of architecture for human design. The architectural theory of sustainable technology connects the relationship between people and the relationship between architecture and the natural environment. When integrated with the design process, these factors can positively impact the design’s results. In conclusion, the theory and direction of interior space design are based on human needs and the importance of perception and cognition of space and place design. In order to obtain more profound theoretical research results and better design projects, designers still need further research and practice to get an accurate basis; however, as seen in the experience presented thesis, designers have a good start on the space, place meaning and design. Rapoport, A. (1970). The study of spatial quality. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 4(4), 81-95. Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2010). Universal principles of design: 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design. Beverly, Mass: Rockport Publishers. Ganoe, C. J. (1999). Design as narrative: A theory of inhabiting interior space. Journal of Interior Design, 25(2), 1-15. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1668.1999.tb00340.x Caplan, B. (2016). Buildings are for people: Human ecological design. Chicago: Libri Publishing. INDS-706 Sylvia Han Pro. Gray Winter 2019 Argument Paper 2 In this argument paper, I would like to discuss that the social theory’s function of humans and society plays an essential role in the design of social theory in the direction of indoor space. The purpose of the design is to solve these seemingly simple questions – “Is this useful for these people?” and “Is this solution better than this?” Therefore, through simpler problems, it reflects the problems that interior design needs to solve and causes people to think. For example, Interior designers need to use critical thinking and design methods that combine user needs to design interior programs. Some theories fact are reflected in interior design, such as the way of thinking, understanding direction and critical logic. Based on designers’ thinking, it is essential that the art, design and gestalt theories support and influence of theory on the expertise of design projects. Designers want to mention critical thinking. The author Eidson, Patricia L, an outstanding scholar in the field of interior design and architectural design, mentioned in his article that critical thinking is a dualistic concept that couples modes of designing with certain theories of criticism. Theoretical and historical ideas that influenced changes in interior design and architecture are presented in a timeline context to illustrate the aspects of evaluating, interpreting and describing, which are parts of interior design criticism (Eidson,1986). Based on the theory of critical thinking, people can use the necessary critical theory and critical review to better judge and plan interior design projects and combine social theory with design theory. Design theory provides the language and the connections necessary to link knowledge and ideas about design concepts with the practice of designing. For example, consist of four elements: concept, form, task, and technology enables designers to build models of these knowledge understandings and evaluate and judge the value of design interior design. For example, the interior design project of the Shenao Village in Tonglu County, supported by the critical regionalism theory, combined with the actual problems and needs of the project base, proposed an innovative design theme combining paper-cut culture, architectural culture and farming culture. Over the past few decades, anthropologists have increasingly joined the study of the social environment and architectural design, as well as human-related behaviors and interactions between social scientists and the environment (Lawrence, Low, 1990). At the same time, recent social theories have begun to refocus on human spatial and temporal dimension behavior. The article the built environment and spatial form point out that the built environment is an abstract concept employed here and in some of the literature to describe the products of human building activity. It refers, in the broadest sense, to any physical alteration of the natural environment, from hearths to cities, through construction by humans. For example, homes, temples and conference rooms are used for shelter and defined as places of protection and activity. However, the constructed form also includes defined spaces that are bounded, but not necessarily closed, such as uncovered areas, squares or streets. It can also refer to specific elements of a building such as doors, windows, roofs, walls, floors, and chimneys. For example, the Japanese designer Takaharu Tezuka’s kindergarten project, which uses a circular, unconstrained building as a kindergarten area, aims to provide children with a more communicative and open environment to nurture children’s learning and entertainment habits. Throughout most of the modern movement, designers have seen the desire to create works of art and design based on objectivity and rationality, the scientific values. The desire for a new form is more intense than before and the objectivity and rationality of the primary design process (and the product be designed). A desire to “scientise” design can be traced back to ideas in the twentieth-century modern movement of design (Cross, 2001). For example, in the early 1920s, the De Stijl protagonist, Theo van Doesburg, expressed his perception of a new spirit in art and design: “Our epoch is hostile to every subjective speculation in art, science, technology, etc. The new spirit, which already governs almost all modern life, as opposed to animal spontaneity, to nature’s domination, to artistic flummery. In order to construct a new object, we need a method, that is to say, an objective system.” Under the guidance of the new art and design new spiritual theory, designers design works that better meet the needs of customers and society. At the same time, they can better use social theory to display their design ideas and forms of works. In the absence of any meeting of minds or sharing of interests by social theorists and built environment professionals, what is found in practice is, at any time, some general, theory-like propositions linking spatial forms to social outcomes (Hillier, 2008). The design and planning of the built environment adjust the physical and spatial environment and the theory aims to promote the shape of social goals and the patterns of interconnected spaces. Translating social goals into space and presupposing how life and work patterns are affected by the physical and spatial forms are imposed, good or bad. In this way, the designer can conceive and assume in advance the necessary social needs and personal needs of the design audience. For example, Crossboundaries use the influence of space’s own settings on the child’s behavior. Renovate the original teaching building, on the basis of which it creates a multi-functional teaching space of “student-led”, and divides different functional areas in the form of color and space to realize a building with more sense of design and fresh use. In conclusion, the design and planning of social theory and the interior environment require relevant theoretical knowledge. According to the theoretical knowledge learned in this semester, critical thinking, spatial theory, and scientific analysis are necessary theoretical support. Eidson, P. L. (1986). Critical thinking: Elements of interior design theory. Journal of Interior Design, 12(2), 19-24. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1668.1986.tb00093.x Lawrence, D. L., & Low, S. M. (1990). The built environment and spatial form. Annual Review of Anthropology, 19(1), 453-505. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.002321 Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49-55. doi:10.1162/074793601750357196 INDS-706 Sylvia Han Pro. Gray Winter 2019 Opinion Essay This paper focuses on the impact and importance of phenomenology of spatial and environmental design. In the discussion and research of the thesis, I test out my opinion from the direction of human behavior and use the analysis of human sensibility and rational behavior to reinforce my thesis. I noticed that the designer’s environmental perception is the fundamental of the interior design. Phenomenology is the process of changing space through its own will. According to the theory of phenomenology, the purpose of architecture and space design is to target human needs and experiences. Using architectural design and idea, designers can better integrate self-theory with functional theory in the process of spatial design, thus explaining phenomenology more clearly and concretely. First, at one time people are perceived as being free-willed, at another as controlled by their environments (Lang, 2010). The latter view is crucial. For example, the work of environmental designers is greatly influenced by their human concept. The modernist thinking in architecture still exists in today’s architectural theory. (Neisser, 1977). The environmental perception capabilities of human beings form the connection between perception and cognition. They not only guide the process of perception, but also guide emotional reactions (emotions) and actions. For instance, the natural and built environment, the cultural environment and the affordability of the people’s inner state limit action and action. The interpretation of these behavioral processes is inevitably guided by the overall concept or model. The term given here is called “environmental awareness and behavioral methods” (Parsons, 1975) Another critical theory is the impact of environmental perception and interior design on phenomenology. The article environmental perception and interior design mentioned that people alter their spaces for three reasons:3 they want to broadcast information about themselves, they want to aff, etc (G.&G., 2013). How they think and feel, and they inadvertently aff, etc. their spaces in the course of their everyday behaviors. People’s will in many cases have the effect of changing spatial forms and outcomes. Thus, designers use phenomenology and design thinking and technology to plan the structure and function of space and architecture further. In terms of architecture and space design, Pallasmaa, a famous architect who claims that the authenticity of architectural experience is grounded in the tectonic language of building and the comprehensibility of the act of construction to the senses (Pallasmaa,2005). We behold, touch, listen and measure the world with our entire bodily existence, and the experiential world becomes organized and articulated around the center of the body (Pallasmaa,2005). The influence and stimulation of phenomenology on architecture make modern design more sensible, not purely visual. Lastly, according to the analysis of phenomenology, the phenomenological theory is variability. The core of this variability is clarity for everyone. Self-theory has as its central concept the self; a structure developed out of one’s experience. This self-concept or awareness regulates individual behavior (Rudd, 1985). In conclusion, phenomenology theory has an impact on the interior space and the environment. People increasingly value their importance. Under the influence of phenomenological theory, designers are influenced continuously and progressed to promote the development of the design field. Lang, J., Moleski, W. (2010). Functionalism Revisited. London: Routledge. Neisser, Ulrich. (1977). Cognition and Reality. San Francisco: Freeman. Parsons, Talcott. (1966). Societies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Gosling, S.D., & Gifford, R.D. (2013). Environmental Perception and Interior Design. Pallasmaa, Juhani. (2005) The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. England. Rudd, J. (1985). Architecture and Ideas: A Phenomenology of Interpretation. Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), 38(2), 9-12. doi:10.2307/1424812

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